An introduction to artificial intelligence

Introduction

Artificial Intelligence which is defined as intelligence exhibited by machines has become a buzz word now a day. Everyone is talking about it and we have probably noticed that there are many technological advancement is happening all around us and AI is one of the main responsible for it.

Combining the latest powerful software with top-of-the-range hardware, AI tools are being used to transform many areas of everyday life, from healthcare to traffic problems.

AI has affected every industry, business, consumer, city and household in a meaningful way.

What is Artificial Intelligence?

For years, it was thought that computers would never be more powerful than the human brain, but the advancement of development, availability of huge amount of data and powerful computation hardware system proved this statement wrong.

Artificial intelligence is abbreviated as AI is a broad field itself. AI is a way to make machine think and behave intelligently like human do. These machines are controlled by software inside them, so AI has lots to do with intelligent software programs.

AI is closely related to study of human brain, By mimicking the way the human brain learn, think and take actions we can build the machine that can do the same.

History of Artificial Intelligence

In spite of all the current hype, AI is not a new field of study, but it has its ground in the fifties.AI as we know it has been officially started in 1956 at Dartmouth College, where the most eminent experts gathered to brainstorm on intelligence simulation.

But due to limitations of computer hardware the project faced difficulties to execute further. Then after in decade of 70 it followed by some criticism and pressure from political leaders it went into black box and these periods are called “AI winter” in the history of AI.

Later seven years the Japanese government took initiative to provide AI enabled industries and made investment of billions of dollar but due to lack of appropriate computer power(hardware) they withdrew funding from it.

So now talk about 21st century this is very effectual for AI. In this century AI is on boom because the application areas and branches like machine learning, natural language processing, deep learning was successfully applied to many problems in academic and industries due to presence of appropriate powerful computer hardware.

Branch of AI

    • Machine learning & Pattern recognition: This is the most popular buzz in AI. In machine learning we design and develop software that can learn from historical data, based on these learning model we can make prediction on unseen or future data.
    • Knowledge representation: Knowledge is the information about the domain and to solve such a problems require the knowledge about domain. If knowledge is represented efficiently system can be smarter and more intelligent. Knowledge representations is the properties and relationships of the entities that exists in particular domain.
    • Heuristics: In AI, we frequently encounter situations where we cannot check every single possibility to pick the best option. So we need to use heuristics to achieve the goal. They are used extensively in AI in fields such as robotics, search engines, and so on.
    • Planning: This field deals with optimal planning that gives us maximum returns with minimal costs. The programs are also aware the fact of world and generate the most optimal plan to achieve the goal.
    • Genetic Programming:Genetic programming is a way to get programs to solve a task, by mating programs and selecting the fittest. The programs are encoded as a set of genes, using an algorithm to get a program that is able to perform the given task really well.
    • Logic based AI:A program written in logic-based AI is basically a set of statements in logical form that express facts and rules about a particular problem domain. This is used extensively in pattern matching, language parsing, semantic analysis, and so on.
  • Search: The Search techniques are used extensively in AI programs. These programs examine a large number of possibilities and then pick the most optimal path.

Applications of AI

    • Computer vision: Computer vision are the system that deal with visual data such as images and videos. It can extract information from images and videos and produce high dimensional numerical and symbolic information.  It could be in various form either in videos sequences and taking images from multiple camera.  There are many sub fields of Computer vision are  event detection, video tracking, object recognition, motion detection, image restorations etc.
    • Natural language processing: This is the field of AI basically deal with text data and could be in different form either email data, log data, normal documents data etc. The objective of NLP is to make machine understand human languages either in text or speech format. There are also many sub-field of NLP are information extractions, ontology, speech processing and statical NLP etc.
    • Speech recognition: These systems are capable of hearing and understanding spoken words. For example, there are intelligent personal assistants on our smartphones that can understand what we are saying and give relevant information or perform an action based on that.
    • Expert system:These systems use AI techniques to provide advice or make decisions. They usually use databases of expert knowledge areas such as finance,medicine, marketing, and so on to give advice about what to do next.
    • Games: AI is used extensively in the gaming industry. It is used to design intelligent agents that can compete with humans. For example, AlphaGo is a computer program that can play the strategy game Go. It is also used in designing many other types of games where we expect the computer to behave intelligently.
  • Robotics: Robotic systems actually combine many concepts in AI. These systems are able to perform many different tasks. Depending on the situation, robots have sensors and actuators that can do different things. These sensors can see things in front of them and measure the temperature, heat, movements, and so on. They have processors on board that compute various things in real time. They are also capable of adapting to the new environments.
References

Datafloq Wikipedia, AI Book

About Mitra N Mishra 35 Articles
Mitra N Mishra is working as a full-stack data scientist.

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