Apache Hive

Introduction

Hive is developed on top of Hadoop. It is a data warehouse framework for querying and analysis of data that is stored in HDFS. Hive is an open-source-software that lets programmers analyze large data sets on Hadoop.

The size of data sets being collected and analyzed in the industry for business intelligence is growing and in a way, it is making traditional data warehousing solutions more expensive. Hadoop with MapReduce framework is being used as an alternative solution for analyzing data sets with huge size. Though Hadoop has proved useful for working on huge data sets, its MapReduce framework is very low level and it requires programmers to write custom programs which are hard to maintain and reuse. Hive comes here for the rescue of programmers.

Hive evolved as a data warehousing solution built on top of Hadoop Map-Reduce framework.

Hive provides SQL-like declarative language, called HiveQL, which is used for expressing queries. Using Hive-QL users associated with SQL are able to perform data analysis very easily.

Hive engine compiles these queries into Map-Reduce jobs to be executed on Hadoop. In addition, custom Map-Reduce scripts can also be plugged into queries. Hive operates on data stored in tables which consists of primitive data types and collection data types like arrays and maps.

Hive comes with a command-line shell interface which can be used to create tables and execute queries.

Hive query language is similar to SQL wherein it supports subqueries. With Hive query language, it is possible to take a MapReduce joins across Hive tables. It has a support for simple SQL like functions– CONCAT, SUBSTR, ROUND etc., and aggregation functions– SUM, COUNT, MAX etc. It also supports GROUP BY and SORT BY clauses. It is also possible to write user-defined functions in Hive query language.

What is Hive?

Hive is an ETL and Data warehousing tool developed on top of Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). Hive makes the job easy for performing operations like

  • Data encapsulation
  • Ad-hoc queries
  • Analysis of huge datasets
Important characteristics of Hive
  • In Hive, tables and databases are created first and then data is loaded into these tables.
  • Hive as data warehouse designed for managing and querying only structured data that is stored in tables.
  • While dealing with structured data, Map Reduce doesn’t have optimization and usability features like UDFs but Hive framework does. Query optimization refers to an effective way of query execution in terms of performance.
  • Hive’s SQL-inspired language separates the user from the complexity of Map Reduce programming. It reuses familiar concepts from the relational database world, such as tables, rows, columns and schema, etc. for ease of learning.
  • Hadoop’s programming works on flat files. So, Hive can use directory structures to “partition” data to improve performance on certain queries.
  • A new and important component of Hive i.e. Metastore used for storing schema information. This Metastore typically resides in a relational database. We can interact with Hive using methods like
    • Web GUI
    • Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) interface
  • Most interactions tend to take place over a command line interface (CLI). Hive provides a CLI to write Hive queries using Hive Query Language(HQL)
  • Generally, HQL syntax is similar to the SQL syntax that most data analysts are familiar with. The Sample query below display all the records present in mentioned table name.
    • Sample query : Select * from <TableName>
  • Hive supports four file formats those are TEXTFILE, SEQUENCEFILE, ORC and RCFILE (Record Columnar File).
  • For single user metadata storage, Hive uses derby database and for multiple user Metadata or shared Metadata case Hive uses MYSQL.

Hive Vs Relational Databases:-

By using Hive, we can perform some peculiar functionality that is not achieved in Relational Databases. For a huge amount of data that is in peta-bytes, querying it and getting results in seconds is important. And Hive does this quite efficiently, it processes the queries fast and produce results in second’s time.

Let see now what makes Hive so fast.

Some key differences between Hive and relational databases are the following;

Relational databases are of “Schema on READ and Schema on Write“. First creating a table then inserting data into the particular table. On relational database tables, functions like Insertions, Updates, and Modifications can be performed.

Hive is “Schema on READ only“. So, functions like the update, modifications, etc. don’t work with this. Because the Hive query in a typical cluster runs on multiple Data Nodes. So it is not possible to update and modify data across multiple nodes.( Hive versions below 0.13)

Also, Hive supports “READ Many WRITE Once” pattern. Which means that after inserting table we can update the table in the latest Hive versions.

NOTE: However the new version of Hive comes with updated features. Hive versions ( Hive 0.14) comes up with Update and Delete options as new features

Hive Architecture

The above screenshot explains the Apache Hive architecture in detail

Hive Consists of Mainly 3 core parts

  1. Hive Clients
  2. Hive Services
  3. Hive Storage and Computing

Hive Clients:

Hive provides different drivers for communication with a different type of applications. For Thrift based applications, it will provide Thrift client for communication.

For Java related applications, it provides JDBC Drivers. Other than any type of applications provided ODBC drivers. These Clients and drivers in turn again communicate with Hive server in the Hive services.

Hive Services:

Client interactions with Hive can be performed through Hive Services. If the client wants to perform any query related operations in Hive, it has to communicate through Hive Services.

CLI is the command line interface acts as Hive service for DDL (Data definition Language) operations. All drivers communicate with Hive server and to the main driver in Hive services as shown in above architecture diagram.

Driver present in the Hive services represents the main driver, and it communicates all type of JDBC, ODBC, and other client specific applications. Driver will process those requests from different applications to meta store and field systems for further processing.

Hive Storage and Computing:

Hive services such as Meta store, File system, and Job Client in turn communicates with Hive storage and performs the following actions

  • Metadata information of tables created in Hive is stored in Hive “Meta storage database”.
  • Query results and data loaded in the tables are going to be stored in Hadoop cluster on HDFS.

Job exectution flow:

From the above screenshot we can understand the Job execution flow in Hive with Hadoop

The data flow in Hive behaves in the following pattern;

  1. Executing Query from the UI( User Interface)
  2. The driver is interacting with Compiler for getting the plan. (Here plan refers to query execution) process and its related metadata information gathering
  3. The compiler creates the plan for a job to be executed. Compiler communicating with Meta store for getting metadata request
  4. Meta store sends metadata information back to compiler
  5. Compiler communicating with Driver with the proposed plan to execute the query
  6. Driver Sending execution plans to Execution engine
  7. Execution Engine (EE) acts as a bridge between Hive and Hadoop to process the query. For DFS operations.
  • EE should first contacts Name Node and then to Data nodes to get the values stored in tables.
  • EE is going to fetch desired records from Data Nodes. The actual data of tables resides in data node only. While from Name Node it only fetches the metadata information for the query.
  • It collects actual data from data nodes related to the mentioned query
  • Execution Engine (EE) communicates bi-directionally with Meta store present in Hive to perform DDL (Data Definition Language) operations. Here DDL operations like CREATE, DROP and ALTERING tables and databases are done. Meta store will store information about database name, table names and column names only. It will fetch data related to query mentioned.
  • Execution Engine (EE) in turn communicates with Hadoop daemons such as Name node, Data nodes, and job tracker to execute the query on top of Hadoop file system
  1. Fetching results from the driver
  2. Sending results to the Execution engine. Once the results fetched from data nodes to the EE, it will send results back to the driver and to UI ( front end)

Hive Continuously in contact with Hadoop file system and its daemons via Execution engine. The dotted arrow in the Job flow diagram shows the Execution engine communication with Hadoop daemons.

Last Note

Did you find this article helpful? Please share your thoughts in the comment section.

About Mitra N Mishra 35 Articles
Mitra N Mishra is working as a full-stack data scientist.

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